The Brain Games study: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of computerised cognitive training for preventing mental illness in adolescents with high-risk personality styles

Introduction A broad range of mental disorders are now understood as aberrations of normal adolescent brain development. In both adolescents and adults, executive dysfunction has been implicated across a range of mental illnesses, and enhancing executive functioning may prove to be a useful prevention strategy for adolescents at risk for a range of psychopathology. Methods and analysis This study will consist of a double-blind, randomised controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up period.

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A Dimensional Alternative to Traditional Nosologies

The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology and were shaped by a variety of other considerations, which may explain the aforementioned shortcomings.

The Reliability and Validity of the Australian Moral Disengagement Scale

The present study explored the reliability, validity, and factor structure of a modified version of the Moral Disengagement Scale (MDS), which comprehensively assesses proneness to disengage from different forms of conduct specific to Australian adolescents. A sample of 452 students (M age = 12.79; SD = 1.93) completed the modified MDS and the Australian Self-Report Delinquency Scale. A multistep approach was used to evaluate the factor structure of the MDS.

The role of depression chronicity and recurrence on neurocognitive dysfunctions in HIV-infected adults

Research assessing whether major depressive disorders (MDD) impacts neurocognitive functions in HIV+ persons has yielded inconsistent results. However, none have considered the role of MDD remission, chronicity, and stability on treatment. Ninety-five HIV+ adults clinically stable on combined antiretroviral treatment completed a psychiatric interview, a depression scale, a neuropsychological, daily living, and cognitive complaints assessments at baseline and 18 months.

The Clinical and Theoretical Basis for Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Comorbid Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders

Social anxiety and alcohol use disorders are commonly comorbid, with each condition doubling to tripling the risk of the other. When these conditions do co-occur, they tend to be more severe and respond poorly to standard treatment approaches. Models of social anxiety disorder and alcohol use comorbidity suggest these disorders are mutually reinforcing; thus, improved treatment outcomes may be observed with an integrated treatment approach that targets both disorders and the interconnections between them.

Functional magnetic resonance brain imaging of executive cognitive performance in young first-episode schizophrenia patients and age-matched long-term cannabis users

Converging evidence from epidemiological, clinical and neuropsychological research suggests a link between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis. Long-term cannabis use has also been related to deficit-like “negative” symptoms and cognitive impairment that resemble some of the clinical and cognitive features of schizophrenia.

Empathizing, systemizing, and autistic traits: latent structure in individuals with autism, their parents, and general population controls.

The search for genes involved in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may have been hindered by the assumption that the different symptoms that define the condition can be attributed to the same causal mechanism. Instead the social and nonsocial aspects of ASC may have distinct causes at genetic, cognitive, and neural levels.

Cognitive-behavioural factors that predict sleep disturbance 4 years later

Cognitive models have identified a number of factors that maintain sleep disturbance. It is unknown whether similar factors lead to initial onset. This study tested whether three cognitive-behavioural factors: ruminative style, somatic sensitivity, and behavioural avoidance predicted sleep disturbance onset at four-year follow-up.

Research priorities in mental health

Over the last decade, Australia has seen an increase in investment in mental health services, primarily through the funding of headspace and Better Access to Mental Health Outcomes programs. Concurrently there has been a policy focus on prevention and early intervention, suicide reduction and ‘hard-to-target’ groups such as Indigenous groups.

Depression, anxiety and cognition in community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and over

Although there is evidence of associations between anxiety, depression and cognitive function in old age, there is little work investigating relations between those variables over an extended period of time. Therefore, we used data from the Canberra Longitudinal Study to investigate 12-year cognitive change over four measurement points in relation to anxiety and depression symptoms.

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